Corporate Financial Ratios: Definition & Categories CFI SC


A working knowledge and ability to use and interpret ratios remains a fundamental aspect of effective financial management. The value of financial ratios to investors became even more apparent during the stock market decline of 2000, when the bottom dropped out of the soaring “” economy. Yet investors largely ignored such warnings and continued to flock to these companies in hopes of making a quick return. In the end, however, it became clear that the old rules still applied, and that financial ratios remained an important means of measuring, comparing, and predicting firm performance.

One can use it to evaluate the ability of a company’s core operations to generate a profit. The book value per share measures the value per share for common equity owners based on the balance sheet value of assets less liabilities and preference shares. The interest coverage ratio shows if a company’s revenue after operating expenses can cover interest liabilities. That $2,000 is your current liabilities that you need to pay within 30 days and if you just looked at current assets and liabilities as lines on your balance sheet, it doesn’t tell you much.

Debt ratios (leveraging ratios)

Allows for comparison of firms that are reporting operating losses and diverge widely on depreciation methods used. It is also a multiple used by acquirers who want to use significant debt to fund the acquisition; the assumption is that the EBITDA can be used to service debt payments. Interest is tax deductible and it saves you taxes on your last dollars of income. The marginal tax rate will almost never be in the financial statements of a firm. Instead, look at the tax code at what firms have to pay as a tax rate.

  • Gross profit margin shows what percentage of a company’s revenue is left to meet operating and non-operating expenses.
  • Credit Financier Invest International Limited provides general information that does not take into account your objectives, financial situation or needs.
  • This ratio shows how many days it takes a company to pay off suppliers and vendors.
  • Benchmarks are important to answer whether the financial ratios in a given year are better or worse.
  • Earnings per share is the value of a company’s net income per the outstanding share of its common stock.

Here, we how leveraged the company is and placed concerning its debt repayment capacity. Operating LeverageOperating Leverage is an accounting metric that helps the analyst in analyzing how a company’s operations are related to the company’s revenues. The ratio gives details about how much of a revenue increase will the company have with a specific percentage of sales increase – which puts the predictability of sales into the forefront. Derives by dividing the company’s profit by the total number of shares outstanding. Signifies the excess of current assets over current liabilities. The current ratio expresses the relationship between a current asset to current liabilities.

Examples of Ratio Analysis in Use

The second is that the market itself has probably changed over the last 80 years, making the historical risk premium not a good indicator for the future. Equity Risk Premium – Implied Growth rate implied in today’s stock prices, given expected cash flows and a riskfree rate. If investors think equities are riskier, they will pay less for stocks today.

earnings per share

Enterprise Value Market value of equity + Market value of debt – Cash + Minority Interests Measures the market’s estimate of the value of operating assets. We net out cash because it is a non-operating assets and add back minority interests since the debt and cash values come from fully consolidated financial statements. In practice, analysts often use book value of debt because market value of debt may be unavailable and the minority interest item on the balance sheet. Leases Commitments converted into debt (by discounting at a pre-tax cost of debt) and shown on balance sheet. Imputed interest expenses and depreciation shown on income statement.


It provides valuable information about the organization’s profitability, solvency, operational efficiency and liquidity positions as represented by the financial statements. Debt Service Coverage RatioDebt service coverage is the ratio of net operating income to total debt service that determines whether a company’s net income is sufficient to cover its debt obligations. It is used to calculate the loanable amount to a corporation during commercial real estate lending.